What does ARTi do?

ARTi is made up of a robust team having many years of experience and specialization in offering turnkey solutions for our clients. We develop complete systems for biochar production. We begin projects from the standpoint of research and development which includes analysis of the biomass. The ARTi process consists of laboratory and techno-economic analysis and feasibility studies. What follows will be designing the best possible systems for our clients. 

ARTi assists clients over the course of the whole process from manufacturing, commissioning, supervision, operation and the maintenance of the reactors. At the same time, we can even help with sales and marketing of our clients’ products.

How does ARTi make biochar?

ARTi begins production operations with a trailer filled with sustainably-sourced biomass. Depending on the required particle size and material content, the biomass undergoes pretreatment processes. The pretreatment process consists of grinding and screening. Then the higher quality biomass enters our drying system which utilizes waste heat from the pyrolysis reaction. The moisture content of the biomass has to be reduced to below 20% before entering the reactor to provide an energy-efficient pyrolysis process. Finally, the newly produced biochar will go through a cooling tower in order to reduce its temperature to 60°C before being transported to the super sack filling station and then into the super sacks.

What processing temperatures does the ARTi pyrolysis unit can handle?

Our basic unit can handle operation temperatures up to 850°C. For higher temperatures, we use special alloys for the main pyrolysis section of the reactor.

How many train reactors does ARTi sell?

We have a broad portfolio of pyrolysis reactors ranging from single train pyrolysis units up to 5 train pyrolysis units. Each one can be customized based on your feedstocks, scale of biochar production and the goals of your project. You can review the specification sheet of our Biochar Reactor at the following (Link) and contact us for a consultancy. 


Single train pyrolysis system

ARTi’s single train pyrolysis system can process 8 tons/day of biomass for a dry matter base and produce 2 tons/day of biochar in optimal conditions. Some of our previous work can be seen here:

  • ARTi Reactor Oat hulls (Link)
  • ARTi Reactor Ireland  (Link)


5 train pyrolysis system

Our 5 train pyrolysis system is equipped to process 40 tons/day of biomass for a dry matter base and produce 10 tons/day of biochar in optimal conditions. Some of our work can be seen here:

  • ARTi Reactor Hawaii Chicken Litter (Link)

Where are ARTi’s reactors located?

Outside the U.S, ARTi has successfully completed projects in a number of different countries around the world such as China, Ireland and Canada. You can see some of them in operation at the following video links:

  • ARTi Reactor Ireland  (Link)

ARTi Reactor Hawaii Chicken Litter (Link)

What additional equipment does ARTi provide besides the reactor?

The additional equipment required for your reactor depends on the characteristics of your feedstock (moisture, hardness, size,…), the products you wish to develop (biochar, bio-oil, wood vinegar) and the production capacity (tons/day). Based on these needs ARTi offers supplementary components to support the reactor’s effective operation.  


Basic equipment:

  • Biomass Trailer Bin  (Link)
  • Biomass Transfer Auger (Link)
  • Biomass Grinder (Link)
  • Biomass Dryer (Link)
  • Biochar Reactor (Link)
  • Biochar Cooling Tower (Link)

Suggested additional equipment:

  • Multi-discharge Auger (Link)
  • Afterburner (Link)
  • Air Classifying Mill (Link)
  • Heat Exchanger (Link)
  • Off the grid Container Lab (Link)
  • Milling Container (Link)
  • Automation video (Link)

Can the reactor process different feedstocks? What are the modifications needed to run different feedstocks in ARTi’s reactor?

It is very easy to switch the input feedstocks. Depending on the client’s necessities, we are happy to add  additional systems such as grinders and bins to separate the different biomass that you produce. We have equipment available to suit the processing of your feedstock. 

Can your equipment be used to make activated carbon?

ARTi’s reactors can be modified to manufacture activated carbon. In general there are two types of activation: chemical and physical activation. Both can be achieved with a modification of the reactor’s basic system.

Are ARTi’s reactors mobile units?

Our reactors are mobile units ideal for our clients’ best interests. They are easy to transport and relocate.

Components & Scalability

  • Which are the main components?

The main components are: 

    • Walking Floor Trailer: that handles and transport the feedstock into the pyrolysis chamber
    • Trailer Bin: a container for the feedstock.
    • Transfer Auger: is a screw like machine that help moves the product into the pretreatment area
    • Grinder: part of the pretreatment, very important since it breaks down the feedstock in particles less than 1 inch. 
  • What is the ideal intake for the hammermill? Can we use square or round bales indifferently?

The feedstock would need to be up to ~4 inches long and ~2 inches wide. If we have a bigger particle size we might evaluate  the best grinding technology to implement it based on the raw material.

  • What is the price for a Grinder? 

This will depend on the size of the reactor that the client wants as well as the size of the feedstock. However, a ballpark number is ~$50K.

    • Dryer: part of the pretreatment, the feedstock needs to have less than 20% content for the reactor to work properly.
  • What is the price of a Dryer?

This will depend on the size of the reactor that the client wants as well as the moisture content of the feedstock. However, a ballpark number is ~$17K.

  • Pyrolysis Reactor: it passes temperatures from 400°C to 800°C, here is where it turns the biomass into biochar.
  • Cooling Tower: it cools the biochar down to around 60°C. 
  • Super Sacks Filling Equipment: where the biochar is put after being pyrolyzed. (Number of super sacks will depend on the size of the system: X4, X8, X12):
    • 1 CuYd fixed super sack filling equipment
    • 2 CuYd fixed super sack filling equipment
    • 1 CuYd to 2 CuYd adjustable super sack filling equipment
    • Customized Supersack filling equipment


    • Stack Module: let’s the leftover combustion gasses out.
    • Afterburner: Helps recirculate the combustion gasses as waste heat for other applications. This piece of equipment has been developed by ARTi to control for VOCs, PM, CO and HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants). 
  • Automation System: the system can run on its own, you are able to control the temperature setpoint, Grinder control, Dryer feed speed, Biomass reactor feed speed, Reaction time control, Cooling time control, current monitors, safety shutdown.
  • Am I able to scale up when a reactor is already manufactured?

We can start with a smaller scale train system and then increase the number of trains. It is a feasible approach although more components should be redimensioned to ensure that the system operates correctly, e.g. the stack, dryers and afterburner. Considering this, if starting with a single train and then going for a bigger system we would recommend manufacturing a new unit (With a higher capacity) and then exploring a buy back program for the smaller scale train already manufactured from ARTi.

  • How modular are the reactors? Can I move it from location in a moment’s notice?

Is not mobile, but it’s transportable. It is designed for the feedstock to come to the reactor, however it can be transported to another location with ease. The reactor is not stationary. In addition, we are researching the possibility to put in a transportation surface that can be moved.


    • What are the requirements of space and safety to locate the reactor in a facility?

    We recommend our clients to place the 40ft container reactor in a 20 x 30 meters open space, in order to ensure safety and control.

    • Can I put my reactor outside? Do I need extra equipment or extra propane to run it?

    Yes, the reactor can be placed outside or inside a facility. Since the reactor comes containerized, this protects all the mechanical elements of the reactor. In addition, ARTi can modify certain equipment for external use, e.g. stack module, in order to have protection of rain and snow.


    • We use the emission of the combustion gasses to recirculate the reactor and give it a use. This way we are controlling the amount of emissions we are producing by creating co-products such as:

      • Bio-Oil:
      • Is bio-oil the same as wood vinegar? 

      Yes, the bio-oil that we collect is wood vinegar. Some clients use it to apply into the biochar or their irrigation systems.

      • What is your average wood vinegar sales price?

      The wood vinegar does not have a well established market yet, however, the cost would be ~$15/lt depending on the market.

      • Is it a separate equipment? And, what is the price? 

      It is a separate equipment that we can add with the reactor, and the cost would be around 100K.

      • How many gallons is a ton of bio-oil?

      A ton of bio-oil is ~200 gallons, however, it would depend on feedstock and pyrolysis conditions.

      • Can the bio-oil be used as a “fertilizer” for the biochar?

      Yes. Since part of the bio-oil is considered wood vinegar it can be used as a fertilizer when sprayed to the biochar.

      • Can we produce more bio-oil if we only focus the waste heat for it and not for internal electricity and for the dryers?

      Since our reactors perform a slow pyrolysis the feedstock will focus more on producing biochar and not a lot of bio-oil. However, the amount of bio-oil produced per train (1 ton) is still a lot.

      • If the bio-oil is applied to soil with biochar will Puro recognize this as sequestered carbon?

      Puro Earth does not recognize bio-oil as carbon sequestration, however other companies do.

      • What is the density and rough HHV of the oil?

      Density is 1195 kg/m3. The bio oil would depend on the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. This numbers we need to evaluate once we have lab analysis

      • Electricity:

      • How much is the cost of the VORC? 75Kw and 150Kw?

      The VORC of 75KW ~$300K. The number does not vary per train, instead we should need to see the VORC availability and the quantity of electricity we are able to produce per train.

      • How much is the cost of an Economizer? 

      It depends on the amount of power that the client requires in terms of the size of the reactor interested. A ballpark number is 100K.

      • Carbon Credits:

      • The carbon credits are calculated in the TEA or the LCA? 

      In the LCA. It’s an input from the TEA.

      • Which feedstock is the best (that we have seen) for carbon credits

      There are a lot of variables. However, forestry residue if properly processed (after going through a small scale trial, big scale trial and lab analysis) we have seen to have the best result in terms of organic carbon, and a lower H/C ratio.

      • Which is the worst feedstock (that we have seen)

      The feedstock that we have seen with less organic carbon are industrial residues, manures and rice husk. However, these types of feedstock do provide greater quantities of yields but less organic carbon.

      • At what temperature is the best for carbon sequestration? 

      This will depend on the feedstock, the moisture content, the quality and other aspects. But usually, from our client we have noticed that the ranges from 550°C to 700°C are the temperatures that are best for carbon sequestration.

      • Since we use your own certified methodology for carbon credit generation, will all credit sales be managed by ARTi?

      It would depend on your requirements, it would be managed by the customer, another third party or ARTi may explore that pathway.


  • Is it a new reactor or a used one? 

ARTi has only leased one reactor to a client since it is a new service that we started offering. It was a new reactor. 

  • What is the policy for the period of time of leasing ? 

This will depend on the contract and negotiations that we get from each client. 

  • Payment methods for leasing, starter payment then monthly?

If we (ARTi) manufacture and own the unit, we may develop the leasing option. We would need to work on a payment structure (downpayment) for the unit’s production and future lease fees and moreover start analyzing those monetary values. A down payment will be about 40% of the unit’s  total price and would look for a term of 4 years. As a general approach, which needs to be further developed for this particular scenario, we would be thinking in Transportation costs (Round Trip) + insurance + 40% of downpayment and a monthly lease fee of 3% of the RFQ from shipping of the unit.

  • Maintenance for leasing? Still 2 times a year?

Yes. The maintenance contract will continue to be the same since the reactor needs to be attended regularly by our engineers.


  • How much is charged for maintenance?

It will range between $20K – $60K per year (2 days per visit – 2 visits per year) depending on the number of trains. This charge includes the 50% of the component´s price and maintenance itself. We check each component, we change broken parts, and check that everything is working well. 

  • How long does it take for a repair?

As repairs are variable, we do not have a fixed time for repairs. To ensure our response is quick and effective we follow the next procedure:

    • Fix an appointment to review the customer’s problems.
    • We will provide the spare parts needed. We will review our stock of spare parts and ship them over, otherwise we will manufacture the part(s) needed and send them. We recommend having some of them at the start of the project so you would have stock of them.
    • Ship the spares and schedule an engineering and maintenance trip if needed
  • Day to day maintenance on site? Do you train our technicians? 

The person who will be in charge of managing the reactor once on site will be walked through the processes of maintenance. However, for big replacements or maintenance will be ARTi with the 2 times a year visit. 

  • Do you provide a manual for the reactor? Or just the training?

We do provide a manual of the reactor (SOP), each manual will be tailored to the reactor produced and it will be delivered once all the requirements for the reactor are defined and the installation of the reactor is completed on site.


  • How does the afterburner work? How does it recirculate de gasses?

The gasses that reach the afterburner go through a combustion process, the molecules will simplify, then break down and then go through the stack module. This process helps reduce the emissions. More detail we can find in the spec sheets (Link).

  • What is the percentage of carbon in the biochar? 

It depends on the residues/feedstock, we have seen ranges from 35% to 90%. Industrial is the lowest % of carbon in the biochar, then the agricultural and the highest % will be the forestry residues.

  • Does the dryer use the gasses from the pyrolysis reactor? 

Yes, we use the waste heat of the reactor for the drying system and to keep the pyrolysis temperatures inside steady. Although, there is plenty of excess heat available that we could use for heating, drying and electricity generation purposes.

  • Is the dried feedstock automatically fed into the reactor? Or is this a manual process?

To automate the operation we use a walking floor trailer and the feedstock is fed into a trailer bin on a wet basis. Our dryers would be capable of removing about 30% of moisture content in the feedstock to achieve the required level of 20% moisture before entering our pyrolysis chambers. This equipment is optional as well as the level of automation. If we use the lowest automation level, the infeed system would be manual up to some extent.

  • Electrical energy required to pyrolyze 1 ton biomass?

The energy required will depend on the size of the reactor, for a single train reactor is 8kW and for our largest unit a 5 train reactos is 30KW. Then we need to calculate the price per KWh in the location of the client to know a more defined answer.

  • Numbers on Syn Gas & other derivatives and from what Biomass

This will depend on the size of the reactor that the client is interested in. If we are talking about a single train reactor, and assuming a 25% yield for biochar, the syngas is 75% of production meaning ~6 tons. The production of pyrolysis gasses will be used for the drying system, keeping constant temperatures in the reactor and the rest of it could be used as excess heat for heating, drying and electricity generation. The estimated production is 5MMBT/h of heat waste heat.

  • Does ARTi have an import license to help the feedstock clear customs? Alternatively, is there an agent we can use to undername the shipment.

We have worked with DHL without any problems, but the company that you prefer would be good for us.

  • If the feedstock is subject to fumigation, as is required by some customs, will this impact the lab result?

Yes, the results will affect specifically for the lab analysis. We suggest working with the real feedstock that we will work during the whole project. With the preprocessing (drying and grinding) mentioned above we will probably reduce all of the problems with fumigation.

  • What is the preferred packaging method (e.g. vacuum sealed, boxed, etc)

If possible, please send it vacuum sealed (And add it to the sample’s name) otherwise it would be ok to send it boxed.

  • Is it possible to configure the machine residence and heat times to maximize bio-oil rather than biochar?

We develop slow pyrolysis technology which  focuses on biochar production. We are able to collect the bio oil with a bio oil collecting system. We would be able to explore different options to increase production of bio-oil with further testing.

  • If the bio-oil is applied to soil with biochar will Puro recognize this as sequestered carbon?

We might explore some options of bio-oil injection on Geologically Stored Carbon from Puro’s methodology.


  • Do we need to have the full life assessment of your pyrolyser unit  and/or methodology certified by a third party auditor?

For the certification we will require a life cycle assessment that our carbon team is capable of developing. As of now, we work with the Puro.earth methodology and if that is the case we will develop based on our reactor and location to be placed and operations. We are open to work with other certifiers, however, puro.earth is the one that we have more experience with.

  • Do we have experience working with authorities of states to get permits? 

Our emissions team has helped our clients with gathering information about permits and get the specifications of these permits up to date with our reactors or services that we are offering.

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